First, the latest hill of matchmaking ekÅŸi quiver BP which have Na intake ranged of the time consumption, recommending that Na density can get reflect the connection which have BP greatest than pure Na consumption really does
There was a significant 3-way interaction between Na intake, energy, and obesity status for SBP (P=0.033); for DBP, the 3-way interaction was not significant, but there was a significant interaction between energy intake and obesity (P=0.005). In stratified models, the association of Na with SBP was stronger at lower energy intake (higher Na density) than at higher energy intake (lower Na density) in both nonobese (interaction of Na with energy; P<0.001) and obese (interaction of Na with energy; P=0.028); the association of Na and DBP by energy intakes was similar (interaction of Na with energy, P=0.005 nonobese; P=0.049 obese). On the control diet at 2300 mg Na intake in the nonobese, SBP was 4.7 mm Hg (95% CI, 1.0, 8.5) higher at 2100 kcal compared with 3200 kcal (Figure 3A), and DBP was 3.1 mm Hg (95% CI, 0.7, 5.5) higher (Figure 3C). In obese at 2300 mg Na intake on the control diet, there were no differences in SBP (0.6 mm Hg; 95% CI, ?3.8 to 4.9; Figure 3B) or DBP (1.8 mm Hg; 95% CI, ?1.0 to 4.5; Figure 3D) between 2100 and 3200 kcal. On the DASH diet at 2300 mg Na, there were no significant differences in SBP at 2100 versus 3200 kcal regardless of obesity status (2.5 mm Hg; 95% CI, ?1.0 to 6.0 for nonobese and ?1.3 mm Hg; 95% CI, ?6.0 to 3.4 for obese). On the DASH diet at 2300 mg Na, DBP was higher at 2100 versus 3200 kcal in the nonobese (2.1 mm Hg; 95% CI, 0.1–4.4), but not in the obese (?0.3 mm Hg (95% CI, ?3.2 to 2.6).
Figure 3. Interaction of absolute Na intake and energy intake on blood pressure at 3 energy levels stratified by obesity status, indicating 3 levels of Na density (L, I, and H), among normal and overweight (body mass index [BMI] <30 kg/m 2 , A and C) and obese (BMI?30 kg/m 2 , B and D) participants on the control diet. The vertical line is drawn at 2300 mg absolute Na intake. Error bars represent ±1 SE. Results from mixed-effects models of continuous Na and energy, adjusted for age, sex, race, smoking, cohort, diet type (DASH [Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension] or control), clinical center, and carryover effects stratified by obesity status. DBP indicates diastolic blood pressure; and SBP, systolic blood pressure.
So it data try conducted to determine whether or not the matchmaking ranging from Na and BP varies that have energy intake. Multiple trick results came up. Next, since in earlier times stated, the effect regarding Na reduction is attenuated throughout the setting from the new Dash eating plan in contrast to the brand new control diet plan, indicating that regions of diet plan along with dictate the newest BP a reaction to changes in Na consumption. 5,twelve,thirteen In addition to attenuating the fresh new BP a reaction to Na, new Dashboard diet together with reduced BP, in keeping with evidence that regions of eating plan, as well as an elevated consumption out of potassium, alone straight down BP. 14 3rd, the association off Na with opportunity intake with the BP continuing whenever the fresh new analyses was basically stratified from the race, with the exception of DBP among whites. 4th, that have stratification from the being obese reputation, big differences in BP by time consumption have been noticed among those who have been nonobese weighed against heavy.
As the Dashboard–Na analysis controlled Na thickness, and not pure Na consumption, the original outcome of this demo was basically interpreted in terms of Na consumption in the place of Na occurrence. The possible lack of revealing efficiency by Na occurrence may echo the fresh lack of data on times intake in a lot of training. Investigations of one’s relationship of Na thickness which have mortality in the observational studies have considering blended overall performance. The study out of Na occurrence with death from the NHANES II follow-upwards research (National Health and Nourishment Test Survey) and you can out-of NHANES III ideal a keen inverse association from Na and heart disease death, no matter if considering Na with respect to time intake. fifteen,16 On these degree, however, Na and effort intake were projected using one twenty four-hour bear in mind, that is not sufficient to imagine your typical slimming down consumption due to higher go out-to-big date variation in Na consumption and effort consumption and their proportion. After that, energy intake is implausibly reduced in both studies. You are able that the noticed matchmaking between Na consumption and heart disease death may be explained by the not as much as-reporting prejudice, that is, in the event that overweight some one report down Na occurrence and are also likely to be to help you die out-of cardiovascular disease, the fresh new seen relationship get reflect the fresh new perception off obesity unlike eating plan. The newest research of a potential cohort study (n=716, 19-seasons go after-up) aligns towards results of the current investigation, that have reported incidence regarding aerobic events doubly high some of those regarding the highest in place of lowest quartile out of Na occurrence (22% versus 11%, respectively; P=0.005) according to seven-day restaurants details gathered in the standard. 17